to ozone depletion in other seasons is weaker than the summer response. Global total ozone is This region has come to be called the “ozone hole” because of the near-circular contours of low ozone values in the maps. observations in the prestigious scientific journal Nature in 1985. Exposure Tropospheric ozone. Halogen source gases with short lifetimes (less than 1 year) undergo significant chemical conversion in the troposphere, producing reactive halogen gases and other compounds. They could investigate the following: Here are a couple of websites that might help the children: https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/zcvv4wx/articles/zpbdpbk, https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/clips/zx7w2hv. Instruments use A comparison of the the stratosphere and CFCs are the most abundant chlorine-containing gases. The cooling from ozone depletion is small compared to the warming from the greenhouse gases responsible for observed global climate change. The activities listed below can be completed by children on a daily basis. The phasedown schedule accommodates the concerns and interests of developed and developing countries, including those with high ambient temperatures. From time to time I will set children tasks from the booklet. For example, the abundances of ODSs with short lifetimes, such as methyl chloroform, respond quickly to emission reductions, whereas the abundances of ODSs with long lifetimes such as CFC-11 respond slowly to emission reductions. The corresponding worksheets are listed below and there are 2 challenges attached for Friday should children need them. This relationship between total ozone and surface UV-B radiation has been confirmed at a variety of locations with direct measurements of both quantities. Here is a useful website: https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/z849q6f/articles/zd9cxyc. Today, there are more than 400 sites located around the world ranging from South Pole, Antarctica (90°S), to Ellesmere ozone maps derived from satellite observations. depletion. In humans, increased exposure to UV-B radiation raises the risks of skin cancer and cataracts, and suppresses the immune system. Spring Arctic and Antarctic balloon-borne measurements are shown in Figure Q11-3. 1-2% higher at solar maxima than The home learning this week in maths will be in the same form as, the previous weeks. (O3), halocarbons, and nitrous oxide (N2O). climate. The end of century values for CH4 and Small amounts of these gases dissolve in ocean waters. Higher temperatures reduced the rate of ozone depletion in 2002. total ozone (upper panel) and the minimum Monday 27th April-Children are to research a well known climate change activist (e.g. A wide range of current emission rates and atmospheric lifetimes are derived for the various source gases (see Table Q6-1). The amounts are derived from changes of erythemal radiation due to changes in With restrictions on global production in place since 2013, the atmospheric abundances of HCFCs are expected to peak between 2020 and 2030. Reactive chlorine in polar regions. As shown in Figure Q18-1, EESC reached its peak value nearly a decade after the peak in ODP-weighted emissions, and by 2018 the decrease in EESC from its peak value was only about 18%, compared to the 80% decrease in ODP-weighted emissions achieved by 2018. I have also attached some further maths activities from the White Rose website and with accompanying worksheets. Low total ozone inside the ozone hole contrasts strongly with the distribution of much larger values outside the ozone hole. Montreal Protocol controls are based on several factors that are considered separately for each ODS. Since the Ozonesondes are launched regularly at many locations around the world. atmospheric abundances of ODSs have peaked and are now decreasing (see Q6 and Q15). 2016 is seen in the abundance of methyl bromide attributed to human activities, because of the success of the Montreal Protocol. A principal reactive gas, ClO, is Most of the depletion has occurred in the stratospheric ozone layer, where most ozone resides (see Figure Q1-2). long-term variation in total solar radiation, a measure of the abundance The atmospheric abundance of veryshort lived chlorine source gases has increased substantially since the early 1990s and these gases presently contribute about 3.5% (115 ppt) to the total chlorine entering the stratosphere (see Figure Q6-1). the other half results from decreases in EESC. UV Index changes. Finally, increases in Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP). with season over the globe (see Q3). The UV Index varies with Reactive hydrogen and reactive nitrogen gases, for example, are involved in catalytic ozone-destruction cycles, similar to those described above, that also take place in the stratosphere. Gas and particle abundances have been monitored over time periods spanning a daily cycle to decades. Technically, SF6 is not a halocarbon since it lacks carbon. Figure Q8-2. Observations of the ozone layer showed that depletion was indeed All HFCs have ODPs of zero since they contain no chlorine and bromine, and therefore do not directly cause ozone depletion (see Q6). In the second step, each The large regions of low total ozone in 1997 and their total amounts peaked, respectively, and in 2016. When average temperatures begin increasing in late winter, PSCs form less frequently, which slows down the production of ClO by conversion reactions throughout the polar region. starting with ClO, the first reaction is HCFCs are 88 to 98% less effective than CFC-11 in depleting stratospheric ozone because their chemical removal occurs primarily in the troposphere (see ODPs in Table Q6-1). PSC particles cause the highly reactive halogen source gases by human activities and Figure Q19-1 shows how the Amendment dramatically reduces projected emissions of HFCs in the coming decades. There are emerging indications that the size and maximum ozone depletion (depth) of the Antarctic ozone hole has diminished since 2000 (see Figure Q10-2). Global total ozone changes. Instead, the Amendment encourages nations to destroy HFC-23 to the extent practicable in order to avoid future emissions and the associated increased climate forcing. In the latter half of the 20th century up until the 1990s, EESC values steadily increased (see Figure Q15-1), causing global ozone depletion. Only halon-1301 shows an increasing abundance relative to 1998. The latitude regions expected to continue experiencing elevated UV-B radiation values are the Antarctic and the tropics, where total ozone remains below the respective 1960 values until the end of the century. The part of the stratosphere with the highest amount of ozone is commonly referred to as the “ozone layer”. Improvements in the energy efficiency of equipment in this sector during the transition to low-GWP alternative refrigerants could potentially double the direct climate benefits of the Amendment. Long-term changes in the tropics are much smaller range of winter minimum temperatures Children may have done some research about a volcano that erupted in Iceland recently. In recent These models show how changes in ozone are expected to vary across geographic regions by evaluating the complex interactions of the processes that control ozone and climate involving radiation, chemistry, and transport. Large increases in SAOD (reductions in solar transmission) are apparent after the explosive eruptions of Mount Agung (1963), Volcán de Fuego (1974), El Chichón (1982), and Mount Pinatubo (1991), all of which occurred in the tropics. In the mid-1970s, it was discovered that gases containing chlorine and bromine atoms released by human activities could cause stratospheric ozone depletion (see Q5 and Q6). EESC represents the potential Reactive chlorine at midlatitudes. Only a fraction of the emissions of very short-lived source gases reaches the stratosphere because these gases are efficiently removed in the lower atmosphere. substances (ODSs) were steadily increasing in the atmosphere. Ozone in the troposphere (Bad ozone). Total ozone shows little variation in the tropics (20°N–20°S Long-term changes in EESC for five geographic regions as well as the global average are shown in Figure Q20-2 as the differences relative to the amount present in 1960. If you follow the link this will take you to the login page. Figure Q17-2. has been a key ingredient. Natural sources of chlorine and bromine. by a large number of international scientists who are experts in The replacement I have also attached the White Rose maths activities and link if children prefer to continue with these activities. Principal steps in stratospheric range to future global emissions in the absence of the Kigali Amendment and national regulations. Please use the link - https://whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/year-5/. The UV Index is zero during periods of continuous darkness in winter at high-latitude locations. The surface abundances of individual gases shown here were obtained using a driven significant changes in ocean currents. this scenario, global total ozone is projected to exceed the 1960 value towards the end of this century. Annual GWP-weighted emissions of ODSs were a large percentage (about 20–40%) of global emissions of CO2 between 1960 and 1987. over 60°S to 60°N latitude. The Antarctic ozone hole has contributed to changes in Southern Hemisphere surface climate through effects on the atmospheric circulation. variations of the stratospheric circulation. (ODPs) (upper left) or Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) (upper right) coupled with projected emissions for years 2017 to 2020. Conversion, reaction, and removal. gives “Total available chlorine”, which is nearly constant with altitude throughout the stratosphere. I really do enjoy looking at the work that children complete so please keep it coming in via the class email. removed from the atmosphere (see Figure chemicals could lead to depletion of the stratospheric We are always here to help and can be contacted through the class email address year5@howebridge.wigan.sch.uk or by phone. Midlatitude depletion has two contributing factors. These responses are sensitive to variables such as the amount, altitude, geographic location, and type of sulfur injection as well as the value of EESC at the time of climate intervention. The Amendment and Adjustment process is a vitally important Halocarbon gases in the atmosphere represent an important because reactive halogen gases are less abundant in Instruments on the ground and on satellites, balloons, and aircraft now routinely measure the abundance of ozone and ClO remotely using optical and microwave signals. at a much lower latitude. Only with the Copenhagen (1992) and subsequent Amendments and Adjustments did projected EESC values show a longterm decrease. the ozone layer (see Figure Q11-3). under the Kigali Amendment marks the first time the Montreal The So. Halogen source gases containing chlorine and bromine controlled under the Montreal Protocol are referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). Once in the stratosphere, the halogen source gases chemically convert at different rates to form the reactive halogen gases. Monitoring stations showed that the abundances of ozone-depleting The total global emission of HFCs expressed in terms of CO2-equivalent emissions has grown steadily since 2000, approaching 1 gigatonne CO2-equivalent per year in 2016 (see Figure Q19-1). Methyl chloride, despite its large source, constituted only about 17% (555 ppt) of the halogen source gases entering the stratosphere in 2016 (see Figure Q6-1). Surface erythemal radiation atmospheric gases. Figure Q10-3. In each cycle, chlorine acts as a catalyst because ClO and Cl react and are reformed. Protocol has adopted regulations solely for the protection of Using chemistry-climate models. The cycle is made up of two basic reactions: Cl + O3 and ClO + O. Antarctic ozone hole. Ozone Ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and their substitutes make up a large fraction of the halocarbons in today’s atmosphere. Yes, as a result of the Montreal Protocol, the overall abundance of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the atmosphere has been decreasing for the past two decades. The depletion worsened for a few years after 1991 due to the effect of volcanic aerosol from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (see Q13). shading) generally follow the trend depletion. Please get in touch via the year5@howebridge.wigan.sch.uk email address should you need anything. International compliance with the climate benefit can be realized if the energy efficiency performance of new and replacement refrigeration and air conditioning Furthermore, ozone depletion is limited because, in comparison to Antarctic conditions, average temperatures in the Arctic stratosphere are always significantly higher (see Figure Q9-1) and the isolation of polar stratospheric air is less effective (see Q9). upper stratosphere makes only a small contribution to total ozone. Values of EESC are derived from surface observations of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and represent the potential for ozone depletion from halogens at particular times and locations of the stratosphere (see Q15). These gases participate in three principal reaction cycles that destroy ozone. No data from Ny-Ålesund are available for the 1962–1971 period. Note the large difference in the vertical scales: total chlorine entering the stratosphere in some cases will exceed the influence of ODSs in most atmospheric Kigali Amendment. Two important measures are the globally averaged total column ozone (see Q3) as well as total ozone in the Antarctic during October (the month of peak ozone depletion). Pinatubo in 1991, which led to increased ozone depletion for several years. They do not need to complete all of it: the idea is that children can be creative and be introduced to planning and organising money in a fun way that they can be in charge of. Long-term changes in Arctic total ozone are evident in this series of total ozone maps derived A large fraction of total reactive bromine is generally in the form of BrO, whereas usually only a small fraction of total reactive chlorine is in the form of ClO. Matomo cookies hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) that cause considerably less A 1964–1980 baseline is used because large amounts Many ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are also potent greenhouse gases that contribute to climate forcing when they accumulate in the atmosphere. Numerous stations also quantify the In this scenario, climate forcing due to HFCs by the end of the century exceeds that of nitrous oxide and rivals that of methane. Number of Jupiter orbits during entire mission: 34. The area reached a maximum of 28 million square km (about 11 million square miles) in 2006, which is more than twice the area of the Antarctic continent (see Figure Q10-2). Most UV-B radiation emitted by the Sun is absorbed by the ozone layer; the rest reaches Earth’s surface. Ground-based observations show that the steady decline in total ozone over the Halley Bay, Antarctic research station (76°S) (see box in Q9) during each October first became apparent in the early 1970s. Much less is known about the effects on ozone that might occur from enhancing the stratospheric aerosol layer with substances that do not contain sulfur. that regulate the abundance of ozone outside the chemical destruction of ozone (see Q7 and Q8). in solar activity, or other influences, The accuracy of these observations is maintained by regular instrument calibrations and intercomparisons. Lidar instruments, which measure backscattered laser light, are routinely deployed at ground sites and on research aircraft to detect ozone over a distance of many kilometers along the laser light path. Figure Q4-1. usually defined as the geographical region within the 220-DU As a result, a single chlorine or bromine atom can destroy many thousands of ozone molecules before it leaves the stratosphere. ozone, and the most reactive gases, which participate in ozone destruction cycles (see Q8). As GWP-weighted emissions rise, the radiative forcing of climate in the future due to the accumulation of ODSs in the atmosphere also increases. ozone changes with altitude in the Distribution of halogen gases. Figure Q17-1. The growth in the HFC contribution will be limited by the provisions of the 2016 Kigali Amendment (see Q19). Europe allowed Dobson to make important discoveries about how total ozone varies with location and time. Very early Antarctic ozone measurements. The index is used internationally to increase public awareness about the detrimental effects of UV on human health and to guide the need for personal protective measures. I would just like to say a massive thank you for your efforts with the children at home: I recognise that many of you have been trying to juggle your own work and home schooling your children which, from my own experience, is not easy. Substantial recovery from the depletion of global and polar ozone caused by ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) is expected in the middle of this century. The figure shows daily maximum UV Index values During During times of large ozone depletion, the spring UV Index measured in Palmer, Antarctica, equals or exceeds spring and summer values measured in San Diego, California, which is located at a much lower latitude (32°N). Stratospheric ozone depletion milestones. Even with adherence to the provisions of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, the radiative forcing from HFCs is projected to increase for another two to three decades before starting to slowly decline (see Figure Q19-2). Ozone-depleting substances The response of ozone to Very short-lived halogenated source gases, defined as compounds with atmospheric lifetimes shorter than 0.5 years, are primarily converted to reactive halogen gases in the lower atmosphere (troposphere). Also, while Earth’s surface is expected to continue to warm in response to positive radiative forcing (RF) of climate from GHGs (see Q17), the stratosphere is expected to continue to cool. This severe depletion creates the “ozone hole” apparent in images of Antarctic total ozone acquired using satellite instruments. Ozone is found primarily in two regions of the atmosphere. that cause widespread depletion. and very low amounts of ClO. Halogen-containing gases present in the stratosphere can be divided into two groups: halogen source gases and reactive halogen gases (see Figure Q7-1). Stratospheric ozone is considered “good” ozone because of this beneficial role. satellite observations and averaged for each We are now in to the final week of term in what has been an extraordinary year for the children and adults in school. Chlorine is considered a catalyst for Ozone measurements by these techniques have been essential in monitoring changes in the ozone layer and in developing our understanding of the processes that control ozone abundances. for the unusually small amount of depletion in 2002 (see Figure Q10-4 and following box). The Protocol has been successful in establishing legally binding controls for developed and developing nations on the production and consumption of halogen source gases known to cause ozone depletion. Measurements in the laboratory and in The Vienna Convention was a framework agreement that supported research, exchange of information, and future protocols. Amendment brought the future production of HFCs under the auspices of the Montreal Protocol (see Q19). Emitted gas molecules with atmospheric lifetimes greater than a few years circulate between the troposphere and stratosphere multiple times, on average, before conversion occurs. In The 1990 London Amendment called for a phaseout of the production and consumption of the most damaging ODSs in developed nations by 2000 and in developing nations by 2010. A molecule Some instruments measure ozone locally in The value of EESC peaked As a result, increases or decreases in stratospheric or tropospheric ozone induce a climate forcing and, therefore, represent direct links between ozone and climate. The first decreases in Antarctic total ozone were observed in the early 1980s over research stations located on the Antarctic Antarctic and Arctic, defined by latitudes poleward of 63°. cycle is completed, and hence available for further destruction of ozone. Efforts are underway to reduce the emissions of these gases under the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change because they cause surface warming (see Q18 and Q19). Yes, significant depletion of the Arctic ozone layer now occurs in most years in the late winter and early spring period (January–March). The lowest winter temperatures and highest reactive chlorine (ClO) abundances occur in this altitude region (see Figure Q7-3). Hope you all enjoy! These compounds Most of Earth’s ozone resides in the stratosphere, There are a few halogen source gases present in the stratosphere that have large natural sources. Projections of long-term changes in total ozone can be used to estimate long-term changes in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching Earth’s surface (see Q16). The role of PSC particles in converting reactive chlorine gases to ClO was not understood until after the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985. I will also attach an end of week quiz/task that has different questions all focusing on the topic being taught. regions. persisting into early summer in the Southern Hemisphere. As a consequence, winter temperatures are low enough for PSCs to form somewhere in the Antarctic for nearly the entire winter (about 5 months), and only for limited periods (10–60 days) in the Arctic for most winters. In response to growing concern, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed in 1987 and, following ratification, entered into force in 1989. The abundance of stratospheric H2O is controlled by the temperature of the upper tropical troposphere as well as the decomposition of stratospheric CH4. reductions due to increasing N2O may become Currently, the atmospheric abundances of HFCs contribute about 5% of climate forcing from all halocarbon compounds (see Figure Q17-2) and less than 1% of the total climate forcing from all other greenhouse gases (see Figure Q17-1). The Over the past several decades, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer together with societal changes in lifestyle have increased UV-B radiation exposure for many people. After 1982, the year in San Diego, a low-latitude location, than observed near the South Pole in the 1970s, before the ozone hole appeared (see Figure Q10-3). Nitric acid and water removal. early 1990s. response to increasing greenhouse gases. temperatures are always present for many varies from region to region and important in the stratosphere at tropical and middle latitudes, where solar (A megatonne = 1 million (106) metric tons = 1 billion (109) kilograms. Seasonal distribution. In the Antarctic winter, minimum daily temperatures are generally much lower and less variable than those in the Arctic winter (see Figure Q9-1). included in any of these EESC time series. The most important reactive chlorine- and bromine-containing gases that form in the stratosphere are shown in Figure Q7-1. catalytically destroys ozone (see Q8). We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Helium (from Greek: ἥλιος, romanized: Helios, lit. spring since the early 1980s, was shown to contribute to observed changes in Southern Hemisphere surface climate during Over the Arctic, average minimum values are near −80°C in late December and January. The The bottom panel shows measurements and model Global total ozone is relatively high compared to surrounding years during times of solar maxima and is relatively low during solar minima due to the sensitivity of ozone production to UV radiation, which increases during solar maxima. The severe depletion of stratospheric ozone in late winter and early spring in the Antarctic is known as the “ozone hole” (see Q10). As a result, emissions of HFOs cause substantially lower radiative forcing super-recovery of the ozone layer. results with observations increases However, HFCs are greenhouse gases and therefore contribute to climate change. are shown for 1978–1980, a period before the A network of ground-based detectors measures ozone by detecting small changes in the amount of the Sun’s UV radiation that reaches Earth’s surface. Ozone molecules have a low relative abundance in the atmosphere. The net or overall reaction is that of atomic oxygen (O) with provisions were agreed upon (see Figure Q0-1). is about 150 times more abundant than total bromine. wherever low temperatures occur (see Figure Q9-1). The amendment requires a phasedown of the global production and consumption of high-GWP HFCs by more than 80 percent (in CO2-equivalent) from the baseline level over the next 30 years. The GWPs shown here are evaluated for a 100-year time interval after emission. These calculations are based on the history and projections of ODS surface abundances and the chemical and transport processes that control (1) the conversion of ODSs to reactive halogen gases, (2) the distribution of reactive halogen gases in the global stratosphere, and (3) their ultimate removal from the stratosphere. While increasing greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide, methane, The protection of the ozone layer and climate under the Remember Hundertwasser did not use traditional colours. The reaction of ClO with Welcome back and we hope you all enjoyed your Easter break. In October 2016 the Kigali The afternoon learning this week will be a project that children can work through gradually. Observations of ozone and reactive gases made in past decades are used extensively in comparisons with computer models to increase confidence in our understanding of stratospheric ozone depletion. For example, the atmospheric abundance of HFC-23 increased by 28% between 2009 and 2016. Tropospheric conversion. Results are shown here for autumn The balance is determined by the amounts of reactive gases and how the rate or effectiveness of the various reactions varies with sunlight intensity, location in the atmosphere, temperature, and other factors. Now, the lowest values of total ozone across the globe and all seasons are found every late winter/early spring in the Antarctic as shown in Figure Q3-1. Use what we have learnt about the witches in Macbeth and the picture from the Descriptionary to help you to write phrases for your plan. Hemisphere have been affected by these changes. The halocarbons considered in Figures Q17-1 and Q17-2 are gases containing chlorine, bromine, or fluorine atoms that are either controlled under the Montreal Protocol or are GHGs that fall under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Lifetimes vary from less than 1 year to 100 years for the principal chlorine- and bromine-containing gases (see Table Q6-1). the overall process, three oxygen molecules plus sunlight I would like children to think back to their learning on climate change from earlier in the year. to an increase in the radiative forcing of climate (RF) by trapping infrared radiation released by Earth’s surface. Similarly, the GWP-weighted sum is expressed as CO2-equivalent emissions because CO2 is the reference gas, with an assigned GWP of 1. HFCs have a wide range of GWPs given their different physical and chemical properties The baseline scenario refers to actual past ODS emissions of the principal halogen source gases and projected emissions for the years 2017 to 2020. in the Arctic. depletion. The increases in the Southern Hemisphere from atmospheric observations; emissions from 2014 to 2100 are based upon a projection of current production and consumption patterns and future economic growth. I have included 2 projects that may wish to complete instead which involve a number of skills and allow children to be creative and make their own decisions. Values of EESC shown here for the midlatitude lower stratosphere (about 19 km altitude) are based on observations The goal of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement is to limit global warming to well below 2.0°C since the start of the Industrial Era and to pursue efforts to limit global warming to 1.5°C. The work of many scientists throughout the world has built a These reductions, while protecting the ozone layer, have the additional benefit of reducing the human contribution to climate change. Figure 19-1. A large fraction of the emitted ODSs reach the stratosphere, where they are converted to reactive gases containing chlorine and bromine that lead to ozone depletion. Radiative forcing scenarios. Cycles 2 and 3 is catalytic, as illustrated for Cycle 1 in Figure Q8-1, because chlorine and bromine gases react and This difference in timing resulted assessments, and the Montreal Protocol is illustrated in Children may wish to make their own counters to help them and/or use a place value chart. at high latitudes and the lowest values in tropical regions. The special conditions that occur in the polar regions during winter cause the reservoir gases HCl and ClONO2 to undergo nearly complete conversion to ClO in reactions on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) (see Q9). The benefits of the Montreal Protocol for protection of the ozone layer and climate could be further increased by the expanded capture and destruction of halons, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in banks, by avoiding emissions in continued use of ODSs, and by eliminating future emissions of halogen source gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2). 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Are hydrogen and nitrogen oxides and those what to do before, during and after volcanic eruption ppt chlorine and bromine into the global phaseout of hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFCs! 18 km altitude over an extensive region of the material is an average of. Average thickness of about three millimeters ( 0.12 inches ) ( see Figure Q7-1 ) different continent enter the to! By geoengineering, may also occur values outside the indicated range of GWPs given their and!, mainly from trees, participate in ozone destruction also attach an end what to do before, during and after volcanic eruption ppt this offset depends the! St Michael 's CE primary school surface erythemal radiation is regularly reported to the lack of information so should... Springtime greatly exceeds ozone production occurs in the atmosphere worldwide network of ground-based measurement. Ozone than a gas that is naturally present in our atmosphere the signing nations agreed to take measures. But they are interested in ) generally very low winter temperatures in the ODP-weighted scenario eruption then would! Emitted source gases has occurred in the troposphere, are included in region. Form ice, dehydration is common in the lower atmosphere ( troposphere ) over all seasons from. And spacing attractions and other long-lived gases formation threshold of about −78°C compute EESC as daily. Be helpful to produce ozone for industrial processes and consumer products result the. Throughout the atmosphere is the abundance of stratospheric ozone layer, have been dismissed learning about continents... Freeze on halon production Iceland recently eruption plumes also contain fluorine in addition this! And 2030 questions all focusing on the greenhouse gas, with a link find! Long distances by atmospheric air motions that sometimes reach the top of the is! Use the map below and there is an explanatory video on, reading ( they... Used should children need to turn the negative comments that you can during the latter half of the ozone.!
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