All Free. Air-cooled machine guns often feature quick-change barrels (often carried by a crew member), passive cooling fins, or in some designs forced-air cooling, such as that employed by the Lewis Gun. See more. [30], The first practical self-powered machine gun was invented in 1884 by Sir Hiram Maxim. In the early and mid-19th century, a number of rapid-firing weapons appeared which offered multi-shot fire, mostly volley guns. A.D. 1858–1866", "Provisional Specifications Not Proceeded with", "HyperWar: The Machine Gun (Vol. As each round is fired, electrically, the carriage moves back rotating the chamber which also ejects the spent case, indexes the next live round to be fired with the barrel and loads the next round into the chamber. n. (Firearms, Gunnery, Ordnance & Artillery) a. a rapid-firing automatic gun, usually mounted, from which small-arms ammunition is discharged. Whether modern, industrial man is less or more warlike than his hunter-gatherer ancestors is impossible to determine. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples ..... Click the link for more information. By mid 1915, the introduction of a reliable gun synchronizer by the Imperial German Flying Corps made it possible to fire a closed-bolt machine gun forward through a spinning propeller by timing the firing of the gun to miss the blades. English [] Etymology []. Meaning of machine-gun. Early Small Arms The first small arms came into general use at the end of the 14th cent. Delivered to your inbox! a device that transmits or modifies force or motion. Many machine guns also use belt feeding and open bolt operation, features not normally found on other infantry repeating firearms. TLDR: Submachine guns use handgun ammunition. 482. Which of the following words shares a root with. 2009: Stuart Heritage, Hecklerspray, Friday the 22 nd of May in … [21] In the same year, water cooling was proposed for machine guns by Henry Bessemer, along with a water cleaning system, though he later abandoned this design. Proper usage and audio pronunciation (plus IPA phonetic transcription) of the word machine gun. What made you want to look up machine-gun? A general-purpose machine gun is usually a lightweight medium machine gun that can either be used with a bipod and drum in the light machine gun role or a tripod and belt feed in the medium machine gun role. The action is very similar to that of the revolver pistols common in the 19th and 20th centuries, giving this type of weapon its name. Machine gun, automatic weapon of small caliber that is capable of sustained rapid fire. Light machine guns are designed to provide mobile fire support to a squad and are typically air-cooled weapons fitted with a box magazine or drum and a bipod; they may use full-size rifle rounds, but modern examples often use intermediate rounds. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). [2] This led to the introduction of .50 caliber anti-materiel sniper rifles, such as the Barrett M82. [20], In 1854 a British patent for a mechanically operated machine gun was filed by Henry Clarke. Some machine guns have in practice sustained fire almost continuously for hours; other automatic weapons overheat after less than a minute of use. Machine guns are generally categorized as submachine guns, machine guns, or … If a gun-toting character pulls the trigger and holds it there while the business end goes bang-bang-bang, then there's an excellent chance that firearm is a submachine gun or a machine gun (warning: does not apply to characters requesting someone pull their fingers). Similar automatic firearms of greater than 20 mm (0.79 in) caliber are classified as autocannons, rather than machine guns. They have several barrels each with an associated chamber and action on a rotating carousel and a system of cams that load, cock, and fire each mechanism progressively as it rotates through the sequence; essentially each barrel is a separate bolt-action rifle using a common feed source. Original patent claim reproduced in: Francis Bannerman Sons, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The History of the Royal Society of London for Improving of Natural Knowledge, from Its First Rise: In which the Most Considerable of Those Papers Communicated to the Society, which Have Hitherto Not Been Published, are Inserted in Their Proper Order, as a Supplement to the Philosophical Transactions", "The Armoury of His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry", "Foglio ufficiale. The medium machine gun, or general-purpose machine gun, is belt-fed, mounted on a bipod or tripod, and fires full-power rifle ammunition. This is common on light machine guns and some medium machine guns. “Machine-gun.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/machine-gun. Definition of machine-gun_1 noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. verb. Usually, the recoil. Unlike semi-automatic firearms, which require one trigger pull per round fired, a machine gun is designed to fire as long as the trigger is held down. Medium and heavy machine guns usually use tripods. You can either have the weapon on safe or fully automatic. This weapon was also hopper-fed and never went into mass production. Revolvers further reduced this to only needing a pre-prepared cylinder and linked advancing the cylinder to cocking the hammer. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Noun. Congress requested that Belton modify 100 flintlock muskets to fire eight shots in this manner, but rescinded the order when Belton's price proved too high.[11][12]. They are commonly mounted on fast attack vehicles such as technicals to provide heavy mobile firepower, armored vehicles such as tanks for engaging targets too small to justify use of the primary weaponry or too fast to effectively engage with it, and on aircraft as defensive armament or for strafing ground targets, though on fighter aircraft true machine guns have mostly been supplanted by large-caliber rotary guns. In contrast to the rotary format, such weapons have a single barrel, and a recoil-operated carriage holding a revolving chamber with typically five chambers. Conversely, with an automatic rifle, there’s an option for semi-automatic fire when full-auto is … machine gun definition in English dictionary, machine gun meaning, synonyms, see also 'Browning machine gun',machine',adding machine',answering machine'. Armour could of course be provided, and in WW I the Germans in particular often did this; but this added yet more weight to the guns. The Allies had no equivalent system until 1916 and their aircraft suffered badly as a result, a period known as the Fokker Scourge, after the Fokker Eindecker, the first German plane to incorporate the new technology. .30 Cal Military 22 Long Rifle AK47, Valmet, Galil All Transferable Machine Guns Belt Guns C&R Colt M16 and Similar H&K Incoming M10 .45 ACP M10 9mm M10, M11, Uzi, Sten, Sterling, and Smith & Wesson 76 M11 .380 ACP M11 9mm Other Post-May Sales Sample Pre-May Sales Sample Smith & Wesson 76 Sten Sterling Thompson Uzi machine gun n. a rapid-firing automatic gun, usually mounted, from which small-arms ammunition is discharged (as modifier): machine-gun fire; vb machine-gun (-guns, -gunning, -gunned) (transitive) to … Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? A cam, lever or actuator absorbs part of the energy of the recoil to operate the gun mechanism. With hoppers, the rounds could often be added while the weapon was firing. A Chain gun is a specific, patented type of Revolver cannon, the name in this case deriving from its driving mechanism. Because they become very hot, the great majority of designs fire from an open bolt, to permit air cooling from the breech between bursts. Machine gun. machine-gun. The rate of fire is regulated by the rapidity of the hand-cranking Modern weapons of this type are often referred to as Gatling guns, after the original inventor (not only of the well-known hand-cranked 19th century proto-machine gun, but also of the first electrically-powered version). Fully automatic firearms using pistol-calibre ammunition are called machine pistols or submachine guns largely on the basis of size; those using shotgun cartridges are almost always referred to as automatic shotguns. Machine gun definition: A machine gun is a gun which fires a lot of bullets one after the other very quickly. Other automatic firearms such as assault rifles and automatic rifles are designed more for unleashing short bursts than for continuous fire, and are not considered machine guns. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. machine gun - a rapidly firing automatic gun (often mounted) automatic firearm , automatic gun , automatic weapon - a firearm that reloads itself and keeps firing until the trigger is released automatic , automatic rifle , machine rifle - light machine gun [9] However, it was a commercial failure and was not adopted or produced in any meaningful quantity. Revolver cannons, such as the Mauser MK 213, were developed in World War II by the Germans to provide high-caliber cannons with a reasonable rate of fire and reliability. Pepperbox pistols also did away with needing multiple hammers but used multiple manually operated barrels. vb, -guns, -gunning or -gunned. [17], In 1848 an Italian by the name of Cesar Rosaglio announced his invention of a machine gun capable of being operated by a single man and firing 300 rifle shots a minute or 12,000 in an hour after taking into account the time needed to reload the 'tanks' of ammunition. The multiple guns that comprise a Gatling being a much larger bulk of metal than other, single-barreled guns, they are thus much slower to rise in temperature for a given amount of heat, while at the same time they are also much better at shedding the excess, as the extra barrels provide a larger surface area from which to dissipate the unwanted thermal energy. Early solutions, aside from simply hoping that luck was on the pilot's side with an unsynchronized forward-firing gun, involved either aircraft with pusher props like the Vickers F.B.5, Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2 and Airco DH.2, wing mounts like that of the Nieuport 10 and Nieuport 11 which avoided the propeller entirely, or armored propeller blades such as those mounted on the Morane-Saulnier L which would allow the propeller to deflect unsynchronized gunfire. First World War combat experience demonstrated the military importance of the machine gun. n. A gun that fires rapidly and continuously as long as the trigger is held back. [19], In 1852 a rotary cannon using a unique form of wheellock ignition was demonstrated by an Irish immigrant to America by the name of Delany. Colonies.-v.3 Foreign states", "United Service Journal: Devoted to the Army, Navy and Militia of the United States", "Abridgments of the Specifications Relating to Fire-arms and Other Weapons, Ammunition, and Accoutrements: A.D. 1588–1858]-Pt. Noun []. This gradually changed to belt-fed types. Belts were either held in the open by the person, or in a bag or box. Sub-machine gun definition: A sub-machine gun is a light portable type of machine gun. An automatic gun that fires bullets in rapid succession for as long as the trigger is pressed. machine gun-- (a rapidly firing automatic gun (often mounted)) => automatic firearm, automatic gun, automatic weapon-- (a firearm that reloads itself and keeps firing until the trigger is released) Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of verb machine_gun Modern machine guns are commonly mounted in one of four ways. Assault rifles are a compromise between the size and weight of a pistol-calibre submachine gun and a full-size battle rifle, firing intermediate cartridges and allowing semi-automatic and burst or full-automatic fire options (selective fire), sometimes with both of the latter present. [18], In June 1851 a model of a 'war engine' allegedly capable of firing 10,000 ball cartridges in 10 minutes was demonstrated by a British inventor called Francis McGetrick. He was so impressed with the weapon that he purchased 10 on the spot for $1,500 apiece. The French government showed interest at first and while they noted that mechanically there was nothing wrong with Steuble's invention they turned him down, stating that the machine both lacked novelty and could not be usefully employed by the army. As a class of military kinetic projectile weapon, machine guns are designed to be mainly used as infantry support weapons and generally used when attached to a bipod or tripod, a fixed mount or a heavy weapons platform for stability against recoil. The earliest, and simplest, application of this idea is the cannon. [13], In the 1830s a machine gun was designed by a Swiss called Jacob Steuble, who tried to sell it to the Russian, English and French governments. Part of the patent also refers to a steam-operated piston to be used with firearms but the bulk of the patent is spent detailing the former system. While this machine gun was equally able in the light and medium roles, it proved difficult to manufacture in quantity, and experts on industrial metalworking were called in to redesign the weapon for modern tooling, creating the MG 42. Unlocking and removing the spent case from the chamber and ejecting it out of the weapon as bolt is moving rearward, Loading the next round into the firing chamber. While technical use of the term "machine gun" has varied, the modern definition used by the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute of America is "a fully automatic firearm that loads, fires and ejects continuously when the trigger is held to the rear until the ammunition is exhausted or pressure on the trigger is released. Information about machine gun in the AudioEnglish.org dictionary, … a combination of simple machines. Motorized Gatling guns are capable of the fastest firing rates of all, partly because this format involves extra energy being injected into the system from outside, instead of depending on energy derived from the propellant contained within the cartridges, partly because the next round can be inserted simultaneously with or before the ejection of the previous cartridge case, and partly because this design intrinsically deals with the unwanted heat very efficiently – effectively quick-changing the barrel and chamber after every shot. [26] The Gatling gun was used most successfully to expand European colonial empires, since against poorly equipped indigenous armies it did not face such threats. ‘Suddenly, machine gun bullets were fired and Michaela fell to the floor.’ ‘The M60 is a machine gun which while fired continually causes the screen to violently shake which is a nice touch.’ ‘He then leapt fifty feet into the air to avoid the machine gun fire from the SWAT team.’ Another is a revolving arquebus, produced by Hans Stopler of Nuremberg in 1597.[4]. Machine guns are controlled by one or more mechanical sears. Search machine-gun and thousands of other words in English Cobuild dictionary from Reverso. historically held that the original, crank-operated Gatling Gun, and replicas thereof, are not automatic firearms or machineguns as defined. 26 U.S.C. To guard against cook-offs occurring, some kind of cooling system or design element is required. The first successful machine-gun designs were developed in the mid-19th century. The machine gun was developed in the late 19th century and has profoundly altered the character of modern warfare. An externally actuated weapon uses an external power source, such as an electric motor or hand crank, to move its mechanism through the firing sequence. This weapon used multiple barrels arranged side by side, fed by a revolving cylinder that was in turn fed by hoppers, similar to the system used by Nichols. In 1777, Philadelphia gunsmith Joseph Belton offered the Continental Congress a "new improved gun", which was capable of firing up to twenty shots in five seconds; unlike older repeaters using complex lever-action mechanisms, it used a simpler system of superposed loads, and was loaded with a single large paper cartridge. (a) As used in this part, “machinegun” means any weapon that shoots, is designed to shoot, or can readily be restored to shoot, automatically more than one shot, without manual reloading, by a single function of the trigger. What does machine gun mean? In machine gun. The weapon featured a single barrel and fired through the turning of the same crank; it operated using paper cartridges fitted with percussion caps and inserted into metal tubes which acted as chambers; it was therefore functionally similar to a revolver. To understand how machine guns work, it helps to know something about firearms in general. Submachine gun definition is - a portable automatic firearm that uses pistol-type ammunition and is fired from the shoulder or hip. [29], Also in 1870, the Bavarian regiment of the Prussian army used a unique mitrailleuse style weapon in the Franco-Prussian war. Loading systems in early manual machine guns were often from a hopper of loose (un-linked) cartridges. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? II. ( as modifier ): machine-gun fire. The term personal defense weapon (PDW) is sometimes applied to weapons firing dedicated armor-piercing rounds which would otherwise be regarded as machine pistols or SMGs, but it is not particularly strongly defined and has historically been used to describe a range of weapons from ordinary SMGs to compact assault rifles. Some machine guns have in practice maintai… Medium machine guns use full-sized rifle rounds and are designed to be used from fixed positions mounted on a tripod. Through World War II the term “heavy machine gun” designated a water-cooled machine gun that was belt-fed, handled by a special squad of several soldiers,… A successful and reliable design, it remained as standard issue with the British Army until 1994, [citation needed] when it was phased out as the L85A1 assault rifle was phased in. The machine gun was developed in the late 19th century and has … 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? Dr. Gatling also experimented with electric-motor-powered … Squad automatic weapons, which fire the same (usually intermediate-powered) cartridge used by the other riflemen from the same combat unit, are functionally light machine guns despite their different designation. As noted above, firing a machine gun for prolonged periods produces large amounts of heat. Machine gun, automatic weapon of small caliber that is capable of sustained rapid fire. The United States Army issued four machine guns per regiment in 1912, but that allowance increased to 336 machine guns per regiment by 1919.[31]. Tripod and pintle mounts are usually used with spade grips. These weapons were still powered by hand; however, this changed with Hiram Maxim's idea of harnessing recoil energy to power reloading in his Maxim machine gun. 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