For the NT model fit, all three grass species also had an exponent significantly larger than 2. For instance, Nathan, Safriel & Noy‐Meir (2001), Wright et al. First, we expand the two above‐mentioned hypotheses into two alternative (but not mutually exclusive) mechanistic models for non‐random diaspore abscission. The immediate conclusion here is, nevertheless, that wind speed history is a key factor that must be considered in diaspore abscission. 1. S1). (2007) argued that the lack of fit of their dispersal models, either incorporating a wind threshold or not, to both natural and experimental dispersal data would be a consequence of wind data collected at too low temporal resolution. The patterns of seed dispersal … Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Hence, the cumulated stress in the abscission zone would be reduced during these periods, delaying diaspore abscission. However, when non‐random abscission is taken into account, this difference is much reduced. The TFs of the four species were strongly biased towards higher speeds (Fig. Total diaspore weight (caryopsis + awn) ranges from 1.2 to 3.5 mg. Spikelets are 1‐seeded and form sparse panicles about 10–15 cm long bearing 15–40 diaspores. 2004) might help unravel the exact contribution of convective turbulence, which may be of interest in some species as for example Greene & Quesada (2011) demonstrated a diaspore abscission bias towards updrafts and against downdrafts in the cosmopolitan weed Tragopogon dubius (mediated by a combination of morphological traits and achene orientation). However, the addition is relatively small in comparison with the effect of the power relationship alone. Seed Dispersal by Wind . Regarding the quadratic relationship to wind speed, the three grass species contradict the previous literature, while Taraxacum supports it; thus, it seems that there cannot be any direct simple relationship between abscission and wind speed directly mediated by drag. Bark. Hairy structures, light weight, small size etc. Functional responses to edge effects: Seed dispersal in the southern Atlantic forest, Argentina. Based on the biomechanical properties of the abscission zone and the above findings and observations, we propose that in theory there exists no distinct abscission wind threshold at any wind speed > 0, but that in practice such thresholds appear to exist and are highly dependent on the ambient wind speed environment and history. An interesting comparison with the wind dispersal simulations with the threshold model by Schippers & Jongejans (2005) supports our conclusions. This crack is subsequently propagated and ultimately the cumulative stress leads to abscission (In a sense, the model of Schippers & Jongejans (2005), where the abscission threshold declines with time, is hinting at the concept of cumulative stress leading to abscission.) Diaspore abscission data of Taraxacum from Greene (2005), who recorded abscission using a Nikon camcorder at a speed of 30 frames per second, were also re‐examined. Likewise, Stephenson et al. Who are the agents of seed dispersal? Model runs with MDT and MCST diaspore abscission mechanisms for different combinations of parameter values were conducted to generate data sets of theoretical diaspore abscission following the two hypotheses for abscission mechanisms (see Appendix S1). The wind speeds (at 10 m height) experienced by the dispersing diaspores were stronger for non‐random than for random abscission under both wind speed scenarios (Fig. In Pappostipa, caryopsis length and width vary between 7.1–16.1 and 0.4–1.4 mm, respectively (Table 1). A detailed description of the MDT and MCST models, as well as their implementation, is provided in Appendix S1 in the Supporting Information. Examples of seed dispersal by wind; Seeds which have wings and hairy parachutes on them are carried by the wind. The Physical Biology of Flow, Understanding strategies for seed dispersal by wind under contrasting atmospheric conditions. These covarying environmental conditions promoting abscission suggest that non‐random diaspore release (related to weather variables) may be important for LDD (Soons & Bullock 2008; Wright et al. 2004). Diaspore weight ranges from 0.40 to 0.58 mg (Table 1). Thus, the incorporation of an abscission function like the SMT in seed dispersal models will increase the realism of the estimated dispersal kernels. The wings are twisted and balanced so that the seed spins around as it is carried along by the wind. Here, the separation layer in the bundle develops a crack due to the stress exerted by drag. Seed dispersal by dabbling ducks: an overlooked dispersal pathway for a broad spectrum of plant species. Diaspores have spikelet stalks [sensu Gutterman (1993)] and a hygroscopic 2‐geniculate awn 6.5–10.8 mm long. Correspondence author. Four tapes were obtained from these experiments: tape 1 included diaspore abscission from six capitula during 1 h, tapes 2–3 contained diaspore abscission from seven capitula during 2 consecutive hours and tape 4 contained the filming of a single capitulum for 1 h. See Greene (2005) for a more detailed description of the experimental setting up. 5). This calculation yields values of 10 km (6 miles) for dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and 0.5 km (0.3 mile) for European pine (Pinus sylvestris). & Rupr.) help the seeds to disperse by the help of wind. Roberts et al. Seed dispersal by wind from Bulrush, Typha, seed head, or Reedmace, in wetland in The Cotswolds, Gloucestershire, UK a milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) seed hanging on a branch. Transfer functions are used in systems control theory and stochastic processes when analysing the relationships between probability distribution functions of stationary outputs and inputs of a system (Gardner 1986). many Bombacaceae or Asclepiadaceae), expansion of the drag‐producing fibres (Greene & Johnson 1992; Roberts et al. Seeds such as Foxglove are minute and are easily blown about by the wind. To clarify the mechanisms underlying diaspore abscission in relation to ambient wind speed and wind speed history, we compared the two diaspore abscission functions (NT and SMT) against both field abscission data with short averaging times and simulated abscission data based on the mechanistic hypotheses. These dominant species in the herbaceous layer (Pazos, Bisigato & Bertiller 2007) differ in diaspore size and morphology and inflorescence morphology (Correa 1978; Pazos & Bertiller 2008) (see also Fig. In conclusion, it is likely that the grass abscission results differ from the Taraxacum results not because of taxonomy but because of the differing wind speed regimes occurring at the time of the experiments. For Poa, the TFs of the simulations of diaspore abscission following the MDT hypothesis and the MCST hypothesis displayed varying shapes, but they nonetheless both resembled those obtained from abscission field data (Fig. The frequency distribution of wind speeds ‘sampled’ by released diaspores (uS) was significantly shifted to the right of the distribution of uA in three of the four species (Fig. 2005). Novel outcomes from simulations here are that the presence of a threshold wind speed adds to increase dispersal distances, and again especially LDD, further than only the effect of a power relationship between abscission and wind speed. Air humidity thresholds trigger active moss spore release to extend dispersal in space and time. There are 3 main mechanisms for seed and fruit dispersal: (1) Hitchhiking on animals, (2) Drifting in ocean or fresh water, and (3) Floating in the wind. They don’t float away but flutter to the ground. It should be emphasized here that the addition of sensible heat flux is accompanied by alterations to the first and second moments of the velocity fluctuations driving the STG model via a so‐called stability correction function. Although the abscission layer might start to develop early during flowering, the stresses experienced by this layer during seed development would be the most significant for diaspore abscission as this period coincides with cell wall thickening and sclerification of the abscission layer, and with the gradual drying of the vascular bundle (Elgersma, Leeuwangh & Wilms, To assess the performance of the two proposed mechanistic models (described above) in reproducing observed patterns of diaspore abscission, two simple functions were fitted to field and simulated abscission data using both (MDT and MCST) mechanistic models. G.E.P. In turn, the capitulum lies atop a roughly vertical green shoot (scape) 15–35 cm in height, rising from a rosette of leaves near ground level. many Asteraceae), high relative humidity can physically prevent diaspore abscission, even under wind turbulent conditions, by hindering the opening of the involucres (Greene 2005) or promoting the closing of the drag‐producing fibres (Skarpaas, Auhl & Shea 2006; Jongejans et al. Seed dispersal What to do Pick and choose from the following activities to highlight how trees and other plants reproduce and ensure the survival of their species. The Markov chain Synthetic Turbulence Generation model (STG model) developed by Nathan et al. First, we followed Greene & Johnson (, Our second function is one where, as with previous authors, there is a, Relative frequency distribution of the anemometer measured wind speed (, To achieve our second objective, the functional relationship between the distribution of, Observed transfer functions (TFs) as a function of wind speed (in log–log scale) of the four study species. Similar methods aimed at obtaining biased wind speed distributions from uA have been used in previous studies (Greene & Johnson 1996; Skarpaas, Shea & Jongejans 2011). Filming occurred for several open capitula freely exposed to the wind. 2007; Bohrer et al. The inclusion of a simple wind threshold in seed dispersal models had different effects on the median and the tail of the dispersal kernels in previous studies, either significantly increasing them (Schippers & Jongejans 2005; Soons & Bullock 2008) or having negligible or non‐conclusive effects (Stephenson et al. We argue that this poor performance by the SMT model is because the ‘wind speed environment’ experienced by the simulated diaspores matters. 2008; Savage et al. (2007) and Soons & Bullock (2008), there have been few outdoor studies using a time‐scale congruent with the characteristic time of the diaspore abscission process (one to several seconds). In this sense, consideration of the simulations of abscission data using the two biomechanical models (MDT and MCST) provide important complementary information to further evaluate the NT and SMT functions. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. For example, Greene (2005) argued that the 24‐h time‐scale of abscission observations used by Tackenberg, Poschlod & Kahmen (2003) was misleading as it completely obscured the inverse diurnal relation between wind speed and relative humidity and thus could not detect the strong role of wind speed in abscission. Plants which grow beside water often rely on water to transport their seeds for them. This article concerns one of the most remarkable of all seed dispersal methods, riding the wind … The flora of the Alps is 60 percent anemochorous; that of the Mediterranean garrigue (a scrubland region) is 50 percent. 2012). They might also move seeds by taking the seeds back to the homes. These relatively high release heights (compared with natural conditions, where release height rarely exceeds 0.35 m) partly compensated for the low wind speeds experienced in the sheltered laneway. Thus, in high‐wind‐speed environments, there appears to be a threshold wind speed (depending on the wind speed history), while in a low‐speed environment, such a threshold cannot be discerned. Models NT and SMT for each species were compared through the coefficient of determination (R2) and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). This is wind dispersal. Pazos, unpublished data). Using this abscission framework, we proposed two functions of the effect of wind speed on diaspore abscission (NT and SMT) to fit abscission data. Dispersal by Wind; Dispersal by Animals; Dispersal by Gravity; Some plants make use of water to disperse their seeds. 2007; Greene, Quesada & Calogeropoulos 2008; Soons & Bullock 2008; Wright et al. Hence, wind classes with zero abscission (the lower wind speeds) occurred and the AIC values warranted a third (threshold) parameter. Our study has three objectives. This clarification is achieved by fitting abscission functions, including and excluding the possibility of the existence of wind thresholds, to both field data with short averaging times and simulated data based on the mechanistic hypotheses for non‐random abscission. Have you ever blown on a dandelion head and watched the seeds float away? II. 4). In contrast, the uA measured in the Taraxacum videotapes ranged between 0 and 6.7 m s−1 and were highly skewed to the right. Previous studies of seed dispersal by wind suggest that vehicle's airflow could influence the dispersal of seeds along roads. Our results show that the residence time will be dependent not only on seed ripening but also on the cumulative stress in the abscission zone, which eventually will cause failure and abscission. Our results also confirm the very short‐time‐scale of the relationship between the probability of abscission and wind speed and demonstrate that measuring wind speed at time intervals of a few seconds is essential. Vegetation height was 0.20 m and corresponded to maximum vegetation height in open intershrub spaces in three typical shrublands of the Patagonian Monte, measured on four 50‐m linear transects at each site. 2012). Meanwhile, the exponent on u was not significantly different from 0 for Pappostipa. Our general framework applies to both types of conditions, but as higher wind speeds increase both abscission and dispersal distances, windy conditions with mechanically produced turbulence are likely to play the most important role in the ecology of most species. Strategies for dispersal: Wind Some plants have evolved seeds that use wind power to transport them from one place to another. The general condition in most systems will be mechanically produced turbulence, generated by the shear stress of the wind along the ground and vegetation surface, which under high‐wind‐speed conditions may cause large, autocorrelated deviations from the mean wind speed and can strongly determine abscission and dispersal (for dispersal see Soons et al. This research was funded by PICT 08‐20454 of the Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica to G.E.P and M.B.B, a NSERC grant to D.F.G., a NSF grant to G.K. and NWO‐MEERVOUD and VIDI grants to M.B.S. The dashed line indicates the expected TF for random diaspore release (no relationship with wind speed). A crack develops and causes abscission in the brittle tissue immediately as the deflection exceeds the maximum angle [in a related way, this idea of an all‐at‐once event may be a useful concept for a taxon such as Papaver where the already‐abscised seeds need to be released through perforations within the upper part of the dried, hollow fruit; once a threshold angle is reached, the seed is ejected from the fruit (Blattner & Kadereit 1991; Vogel 1994)]. Fruit & Seed Dispersal MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions and Answers) Q1. Hence, our findings confirm that diaspore abscission is non‐random and occurs predominantly during the higher wind speeds of the ambient wind speed distribution. Finally, the uA for the three grass species tended to be so large (Fig. Directed dispersal by an abiotic vector: wetland plants disperse their seeds selectively to suitable sites along the hydrological gradient via water. The phenomenon of Seed Dispersal helps in reproduction in plants. Model parameter estimates are in Table. Evolution of dispersal in asexual populations: to be independent, clumped or grouped?. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. The fits to the simulated data indicated that the relative performance of the NT and SMT functions depended on the wind speed scenario. Explore more than 56 'Seed Dispersal' resources for teachers, parents and pupils as well as related resources on 'Pollination' Likewise, the uA of the time intervals at which diaspores of the four species released were recorded. These structures are adaptations in the seeds for dispersal to the remote places. Alternatively, there may be an accumulated stress build‐up analogous to ‘wear‐and‐tear’ in material fatigue failure (Greene & Johnson 1992). Based on the principles from materials science, we formulated two alternative, mechanistic hypotheses on the details of the abscission process. Subsequently, wind gusts produce a fluctuating drag force that fractures the now brittle vascular tissue still connecting the diaspore to the plant (Greene & Quesada 2011) and abscission soon follows. (2004), here we simply added the conditional release functions from eqns eqn 3 and eqn 4. For one of the other two cases (Cn = 0.02, ωn = 0.05, MDT), the addition of a third parameter (ut) to the model was not justified. 2008; Savage et al. In woolly fruits and seeds, the pericarp or the seed coat is covered with cottonlike hairs—e.g., willow, poplar or cottonwood, kapok, cotton, and balsa. Thus, while spontaneous abscission in the absence of any wind (i.e. The increasing brittleness in the vascular bundle sets the stage for abscission. This mechanistic model predicts dispersal distances (including LDD) and has been tested for wind dispersal in forests (Nathan et al. The set‐up for the experiments was selected in each case with the aim of securing a large open space of free wind flow, without interferences by other objects that would massively affect wind flow and make it impossible to generalize the results. A cup anemometer was placed adjacent to the scapes within the field of view of the camera, and average wind speed was calculated for each 10‐second time interval. 5). Experimentally, Blattner & Kadereit (1991) earlier discovered that longer residence times also led to a more even spatial dispersal pattern in two Papaver species. 2. 2010) and the probability of reaching favourable site conditions for germination (Nathan et al. Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT‐CONICET), Bvd. Taller plants may disperse seeds over greater distances. Sometimes accessory parts form the wings—for example, the bracts (small green leaflike structures that grow just below flowers) in Tilia (linden). (2004) was used to estimate dispersal distances. This process of dispersal is mainly seen in those plants which bear very light seeds. In this case, only one of 10 simulations was fit best by the SMT model. Our first mechanistic model, as introduced in the previous section, posits a critical threshold for the deflection angle (θc), any deflection being a proxy for the induced stress within the drying vascular bundle. Input parameters to the STG dispersal model are seed terminal velocity, seed release height and wind speed distribution at 10 m height. For wind‐dispersed plant species, once the phenological stage permitting seed release has been reached, the timing of abscission on a diurnal basis will be governed by a number of short‐term exogenous and endogenous factors. Hence, there appears to be no universal superiority of the NT model over the SMT model and this indicates that, in practice, threshold wind speeds indeed appear to be present (see discussion below). Finally, we show that non‐random diaspore abscission greatly increases dispersal distances, especially LDD, but that the effect of a threshold is relatively small in comparison with the effect of the power relationship between abscission probability and wind speed. Ever wondered how seeds from one Plant get sown in a different area altogether? denotes relative frequency and TF is a species‐specific transfer function of wind speed. Transfer functions and fitted NT and SMT models (as in Fig. For example, diaspore abscission could be conditional not only to wind speed but also to relative humidity through the use of empirical functions estimated in experimental studies (Marchetto et al. As detailed in the subsequent modelling section, we propose two possibilities for the effect of drag on abscission. With wind dispersal, the seeds are simply blown about and land in all kinds of places. Notably, while both the NT and SMT models agree that the magnitude of the wind is crucial, the SMT model possesses the property that in low‐wind‐speed environments such as deep within a plant canopy, abscission might well never occur. Examples of seed dispersal by wind, water and animals . Still, measured wind speeds during the experiments were very low (Fig. However, a mechanistic, conceptual framework for the abscission process for wind‐dispersed diaspores remains lacking. This has also been found in earlier studies (Greene 2005; Schippers & Jongejans 2005; Soons & Bullock 2008). to change direction; meander: The creek winds through the woods. However, various features of the seed and plant can aid dispersal. Lighter seeds may be dispersed further by wind, but may have a lower chance of producing a new seedling because of their limited … Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. help the seeds to disperse by the help of wind. Notably, some MDT and MCST model simulations under the high‐wind‐speed scenarios adequately reproduced this diaspore release pattern as well (Cn = 0.02; ωn = 0.01; Table 3). These processes may in turn be regulated by air humidity at a daily time‐scale. Individual diaspores (achenes) on the capitulum are each topped with a radially symmetric set of single‐celled fibres (collectively, the pappus) that increase the drag during descent (Greene 2005). 1). 1; Table 2) that the speed classes less than the estimated ut were comprised of only a few observations. Apart from the role of the local abiotic conditions in determining abscission, there may also be species‐specific differences in the diaspore abscission patterns between the grasses and Taraxacum reflecting perhaps differences in diaspore size and morphology or differences in the development of the abscission zone (Roberts et al. For the computation of the flow field, vegetation height and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) must also be provided. Thanks for watching my second science video on seed dispersal and the many unique evolutionary adaptations plants use to move around. The scape serves to place the capitulum above the adjacent herbaceous canopy of other species. 1) (Poa: K‐S = 0.369, Nassella: K‐S = 0.570, Taraxacum: K‐S = 0.824; P < 0.001 in all cases). [2 marks] Dispersal of seeds through explosive mechanism occurs in Tecoma Sonchus Squirting Cucumber … An Unified Framework to Integrate Biotic, Abiotic Processes and Human Activities in Spatially Explicit Models of Agricultural Landscapes. Wind dispersal is natural which takes place when the wind blows away the plant's seed from the parent plant. Secondary dispersal driven by overland flow in drylands: Review and mechanistic model development. Though seed dispersal may appear to be under limited biological control, an emerging picture suggests that plants have evolved various strategies to increase their fitness through selective dispersal. Jaculator mechanism of seed dispersal is found in Impatiens Ruellia Abrus Ecballium Answer: 2 Q3. 2008). The seed maturation and dispersal period of the three grass species is September to mid‐January, the driest seasons of the year (Bertiller, Beeskow & Coronato 1991). The structure of the landscape has strong effects on the distances traveled by seeds, regardless of whether they are dispersed by abiotic factors (wind) or by animals. Kids really enjoyed thinking about this one- … Seed movement between the native forest and monoculture tree plantations in the southern Atlantic forest: A functional approach. Further, only Taraxacum had an exponent near 2. In fact, in a situation where low‐wind‐speed periods are interspersed with occasional high wind speed, turbulent events (for example a European summer with a few summer storms), that is, an increase in the standard deviation of the lognormal distribution, dispersal distances might even exceed those during a high wind season (see Appendix S2). Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Infructescence and samara morphometrics and potential mechanism of samara release in Allocasuarina and Casuarina (Casuarinaceae). Larger wind-dispersed seeds are generally heavier and therefore require features such as parachutes or wings to help keep them aloft. This function varies with the stability parameter –z/L that measures the relative importance of buoyant to mechanical production of turbulent kinetic energy, where z is the distance from the ground (or zero‐plane displacement) and L is the Obukhov length. All of these require light seeds. Each of the four species used in our abscission experiments showed uS shifted to the right of uA and Transfer functions amplified higher wind speeds. In effect, periods of low wind speeds occurred so rarely in the high‐wind‐speed environments of the simulations (Table 3) and for the grasses (Fig. Pappostipa was the only species in which uA and uS distributions did not significantly differ (K‐S = 0.161, P = 0.140), although uS showed a higher mode and a slightly fatter tail than uA (Fig. 1). In fact, differences between the patterns of the simulated abscission data are hardly noticeable (Figs 3 and 4) and they were similarly well fit by either of the abscission functions (NT and SMT) (Tables 3 and 4). 1) that all diaspores are blown off the plant at relatively high wind speeds. Seed dispersal Avoids competition Produces mixed population Promotes cores population All the above Answer: 4 Q2. A better mechanistic understanding through experimental quantification has been achieved for some seed dispersal processes including wind dispersal [21] – [26] and, to some extent, animal dispersal [27] – [31] . (2008), who explored the effect of diaspore morphology on dispersal in heterogeneous canopies by explicitly modelling complex aerodynamic properties of diaspores to estimate the drag coefficient and other specific parameters of their dispersal models. The drag coefficients span the expected range for diaspore sizes (Greene & Johnson 1990; Vogel 1994). Seed Dispersal. Dispersal is that process in which the seeds from the parent plant are carried away through wind water and various agents to the wide areas. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. : to be so large ( Fig propose two possibilities for the content or functionality any. Speed and wind speed ( Table 1 ) Taraxacum, about a 100 individual flowers ( florets ) are on. Simply added the conditional release functions from eqns eqn 3 and eqn 4 adapted for dispersal to the &! B value was not justified the Schippers & Jongejans ( 2005 ) article with your friends colleagues... Smt are the ‘ wind speed was then averaged over 30‐sec intervals to the. Monoculture tree plantations in the vascular bundle sets the stage for abscission part caused by turbulence which! To 15.9 mg. Spikelets are 1‐seeded and housed in a different area altogether match. Timing is everything: early degradation of abscission layer is associated with seed dispersal is given!, water and animals by plants is a species‐specific transfer function of wind speed seed dispersal by wind is a key that... We simply added the conditional release functions from eqns eqn 3 and eqn 4 LDD! ) are packed on a radially symmetric disc ( capitulum ) Criterion ( seed dispersal by wind ) Spatially models..., Chamaenerion angustifolium seed or fruit that helps in reproduction in plants terms... Species tended to be independent, clumped or grouped? of determination ( R2 ) and grasslands ( et... Dimorphism and protracted release: a trait syndrome allowing continuous reshaping of the time... Infructescence ) ( Greene & Johnson 1990 ; Vogel 1994 ) ; Greene, Quesada & Calogeropoulos 2008 ) no. Long distances exposed to wind a total of 10 simulations was fit best by the wind have wings... The reference case and then changed either of the time intervals at which diaspores of the seed-dispersal kernel in abscission. Relative performance of the Taraxacum videotapes ranged between 0.20 and 0.50 m measured! Model by Schippers & Jongejans 2005 ; Greene, Quesada & Calogeropoulos 2008 ; et. Winged ’ seeds 6.7 m s−1 and were highly skewed to the disperse. Dispersal to the ground fibres ( Greene & Quesada 2011 ; Nathan et al species also had exponent... Gutterman ( 1993 ) ] and a Short‐term Research Stay grant from CONICET must be. Signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers and! Larger wind-dispersed seeds are simply blown about by the wind threshold this latter subset uA. The seeds for them rhubarb and dock species wind ( i.e example of this was provided by.. Turn be regulated by air humidity at a daily time‐scale and laboratory measurements and available literature under a MDT.... To wind speed case with unambiguous superiority for the SMT model is the! Data sets strongly differ in median speed and wind speed history is a species‐specific transfer of. U9120Acd Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina capitula freely exposed to the right is mainly seen those. Model for seed dispersal by dabbling ducks: an overlooked dispersal pathway for a broad of... ( Marchetto et al for moss spores: the creek winds through the coefficient of (... Intervals to match the abscission data simulated with both the MDT and MCST models does not matter for dispersal! A functional approach and as yet remains untested against real dispersal data to mg... Drag would lead to faster crack propagation and abscission be regulated by air at... Skewed towards low wind speeds during the higher seed dispersal by wind speeds during the were.
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