According to the historians Emanuele Intagliata, the change can be ascribed to the Roman reorganization following Zenobia's fall, as Palmyra ceased to be a rich caravan city and became a frontier fortress, leading the inhabitants to focus on satisfying the needs of a garrison instead of providing the empire with luxurious oriental items. [350] ISIL forces entered Palmyra the same day. [289], Palmyra prospered as part of the Umayyad Caliphate, and its population grew. [10] The second view, supported by some philologists, such as Jean Starcky, holds that Palmyra is a translation of "Tadmor" (assuming that it meant palm), which had derived from the Greek word for palm, "palame". According to the reading of Dupont-Sommer, Palmyra is separated by two hundreds "bows" from Laghman; In the inscription, the word used to indicate bow is "QŠTN", and Dupont-Sommer asserted that it is an Aramaic word denoting a unit to measure a distance of 15 to 20 kilometres. [note 22][46] In 129 Palmyra was visited by Hadrian, who named it "Hadriane Palmyra" and made it a free city. NAKAMURA, BYRON, Palmyra and the Roman East , Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 34:2 (1993:Summer) p.133 Palmyra and the Roman East Z Byron Nakamura ENOBIA'S PALMYRENE EMPIRE, which dominated the Ro­ man East between the winter of 270 and the summer of 272,1 provides a unique example of a local dynast mar­ shaling support from various eastern communities upon [395][396], Citing the Palmyrenes' combat skills in large, sparsely populated areas, the Romans formed a Palmyrene auxilia to serve in the Imperial Roman army. In AD 74, an inscription mentions the city's boule (senate). [327] Nu'air was captured, taken to Aleppo and executed in 1406; this, according to Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, ended the Al Fadl clan's power. ... the Palmyrene Empire which briefly encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor. [36] Behind the theater were a small senate building and the large Agora, with the remains of a triclinium (banquet room) and the Tariff Court. [87] Classical Palmyra had a distinctive culture,[88] based on a local Semitic tradition,[89] and influenced by Greece and Rome. However her final days may have played out, Zenobia is still remembered today as one of history’s most powerful queens. Her sternness, when necessity demanded, was that of a tyrant, her clemency, when her sense of right called for it, that of a good emperor … She hunted with the eagerness of a Spaniard. [114] Palmyra provided the most convenient Eastern examples bolstering an art-history controversy at the turn of the 20th century: to what extent Eastern influence on Roman art replaced idealized classicism with frontal, hieratic and simplified figures (as believed by Josef Strzygowski and others). Greco-Roman culture influenced the culture of Palmyra, which produced distinctive art and architecture that combined eastern and western traditions. [305], By the twelfth century, the population moved into the courtyard of the Temple of Bel which was fortified;[298] Palmyra was then ruled by Toghtekin, the Burid atabeg of Damascus, who appointed his nephew governor. In 273, Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed the city, which was later restored by Diocletian at a reduced size. ", "Islamic State militants blow up ancient Arch of Triumph in Palmyra", "Palmyra's dynamited temple can be restored, de-miners use robots", "Less damage to ancient Palmyra than feared, Syrian antiquities chief says", "Palmyra statue damaged by Islamic State goes on display in Damascus", "Expert says Islamic State has badly damaged major Palmyra monument", "Archeaologist says '70% of Palmyra can be rebuilt, "Syrians Race to Save Ancient City's Treasures from ISIS", "The man who spent 40 years preserving Palmyra's past", "Isis in Syria: Militants 'severely damage' ancient Bel Temple in Palmyra using explosives", "IS destruction of ancient Syrian temple erases rich history", "New Studies in Roman Commerce with the East", "Isis in Palmyra: Civilians forced to watch execution of 20 men at amphitheatre", "Networks and Social Cohesion in Ancient Indian Ocean Trade: Geography, Ethnicity, Religion", "Antiquités Syriennes 29: A propos du culte de Zeus à Séleucie", "Antiquités Syriennes 76: Caractères de l'histoire d'Émèse", "Palmyra: historic Syrian city falls under control of Isis", "Isis destroys tetrapylon monument in Palmyra", "Stone Sculptures Smashed by ISIL in Ancient City of Palmyra Restored to Former Glory by Italian Experts", "Museum of Lost Objects: The Temple of Bel", "Isis executes Palmyra antiquities chief and hangs him from ruins he spent a lifetime restoring", Palmyra. [note 32][338] The Syrian Emirate's army entered Deir ez-Zor on 4 December, and Zor Sanjak became part of Syria. [11] Similarly, according to this theory, "Palmyra" derives from the Hurrian word pal ("to know") using the same mVr formant (mar). The transformation already began in the first century BC. [95] Others view Palmyra's culture as a fusion of local and Greco-Roman traditions. Queen Zenobia’s Last Look Upon Palmyra, painted by artist Herbert Gustave Schmalz in 1888. The Roman Crisis of the Third Century continued as the Emperor Valerian was defeated and captured by the Sasanian Empire of Persia in the Battle of Edessa, together with a large part of the Roman field army in the east.This left his son Gallienus in very shaky control. [note 5][64] Palmyrene diaspora members always made clear their Palmyrene origin and used the Palmyrene language, and maintained their distinct religion even when the host society's religion was close to that of Palmyra. Palmyra changed hands on a number of occasions between different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD. Bringing his strongest forces, the two clashed at the Battle of Immae in the city of Daphne in 272 A.D. Wikimedia CommonsThe Triumph of Aurelian. [348] According to Maamoun Abdulkarim, the Syrian Army positioned its troops in some archaeological-site areas,[348] while Syrian opposition fighters positioned themselves in gardens around the city. [365], The Palmyrene council consisted of about six hundred members of the local elite (such as the elders or heads of wealthy families or clans),[note 33][204] representing the city's four-quarters. Their geographical position favored a focus on military capability. [366][367] Palmyra's military was led by strategoi (generals) appointed by the council. [429] Also, he bore the epithet Invictus and was known with the name Sol "Sanctissimus", the latter was an epithet Aurelian bore on an inscription from Capena. [72] There are several theories explaining the disappearance of the Palmyrene language shortly after the campaigns of Aurelian. Then read about the Shieldmaidens, the women warriors of the Vikings. [283] Aurelian marched against Palmyra, razing it to the ground and seizing the most valuable monuments to decorate his Temple of Sol. [192] The Palmyrenes evacuated to Parthian lands beyond the eastern bank of the Euphrates,[192] which they prepared to defend. The tribal role in Palmyra is debated; during the first century, four tre… [400][401] During the late second century Rome formed the Cohors XX Palmyrenorum, which was stationed in Dura-Europos. [358] Following heavy fighting, ISIL briefly reoccupied the city on 11 December 2016,[359] prompting an offensive by the Syrian Army which retook the city on 2 March 2017. [73] Many scholars ascribe the disappearance of the language to a change in society resulting from the reorganization of the Eastern Roman frontier following the fall of Zenobia. [48] The Arab newcomers were assimilated by the earlier inhabitants, used Palmyrene as a mother tongue,[49] and formed a significant segment of the aristocracy. [108] The reliefs emphasized clothing, jewelry and a frontal representation of the person depicted,[108][109] characteristics which can be seen as a forerunner of Byzantine art. The Phylai are the Bene Mita, Komare, Mattabol, Ma'zin and Claudia. [239] As a reward, he received the title Imperator Totius Orientis ("Governor of the East") from Gallienus,[240] and ruled Syria, Mesopotamia, Arabia and Anatolia's eastern regions as the imperial representative. [46] Palmyra was left independent,[46] trading with Rome and Parthia but belonging to neither. [360], From the beginning of its history to the first century AD Palmyra was a petty sheikhdom,[362] and by the first century BC a Palmyrene identity began to develop. [235], Odaenathus formed an army of Palmyrenes and Syrian peasants against Shapur. [62] The inscriptions reveal the existence of a real diaspora satisfying the three criteria set by the sociologist Rogers Brubaker. In 271 A.D., the Roman emperor Aurelian set out on a campaign to defeat Zenobia and reclaim the lands now under her rule. [296] Most of the new rulers acknowledged the caliph as their nominal sovereign, a situation which continued until the Mongol destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate in 1258. 27 reads. [234] One of Valerian's officers, Macrianus Major, his sons Quietus and Macrianus, and the prefect Balista rebelled against Valerian's son Gallienus, usurping imperial power in Syria. [309], During the mid-twelfth century, Palmyra was ruled by the Zengid king Nur ad-Din Mahmud. [note 8][78] Even the four tribes ceased to be important by the third century as only one inscription mentions a tribe after the year 212; instead, aristocrats played the decisive role in the city's social organization. 1 year 201 days ago. No evidence exist for Roman units serving in the ranks of Odaenathus; whether Roman soldiers fought under Odaenathus or not is a matter of speculation. The Roman army was the largest and meanest fighting force in the ancient world. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period, and documents first mention the city in the early second millennium BC. [462] French artist and architect Louis-François Cassas conducted an extensive survey of the city's monuments in 1785, publishing over a hundred drawings of Palmyra's civic buildings and tombs. [52] The Palmyrenes seem to have disliked the Greeks, considered them foreigners, and restricted their settlement in the city. [note 3][42] The earliest known inhabitants were the Amorites in the early second millennium BC,[43] and by the end of the millennium Arameans were mentioned as inhabiting the area. [187] During the first centuries AD, Palmyra's main trade route ran east to the Euphrates where it connected at the city of Hīt. Despite his Greek name, Alexandros was probably a native Palmyrene. In 270 A.D., she broke off friendly relations with Rome and began taking over their lands. With Egypt, Asia Minor, and the Levant under her control by 271, she broke all ties from Rome, declaring Palmyra an independent empire and herself its Empress. [435] Some caravans were financed by a single merchant,[76] such as Male' Agrippa (who financed Hadrian's visit in 129 and the 139 rebuilding of the Temple of Bel). [182], During the Hellenistic period under the Seleucids (between 312 and 64 BC), Palmyra became a prosperous settlement owing allegiance to the Seleucid king. [113], Many surviving funerary busts reached Western museums during the 19th century. However, the Sassanid Persians had been causing a good deal of trouble for the Romans, as they had access to Eastern trade borders in and out of Rome. [note 15][46][195] The Romans included Palmyra in the province of Syria,[194] and defined the region's boundaries. [363] During the first half of the first century AD, Palmyra incorporated some of the institutions of a Greek city (polis);[205] the notion of an existing citizenship first appears in an inscription, dated to AD 10, mentioning the "people of Palmyra". [375] In 258 Odaenathus began extending his political influence, taking advantage of regional instability caused by Sasanian aggression;[375] this culminated in the Battle of Edessa,[234] Odaenathus' royal elevation and mobilization of troops, which made Palmyra a kingdom. Named after its capital and largest city, Palmyra, it encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, and Egypt, as well as large parts of Asia Minor. Others say that she never made it to Rome at all, having either starved or poisoned herself on the journey back. [373] The council remained, and the strategos designated one of two annually-elected magistrates. [445] The city regained some of its prosperity during the Umayyad era, indicated by the discovery of a large Umayyad souq in the colonnaded street. [162], In response to the destruction, on 21 October 2015, Creative Commons started the New Palmyra project, an online repository of three-dimensional models representing the city's monuments; the models were generated from images gathered, and released into the public domain, by the Syrian internet advocate Bassel Khartabil between 2005 and 2012. [378] ↑ A Palmyrene monument was discovered near Newcastle in England; it was set by a Palmyrene named Baratas, who was either a soldier or a camp follower. [172], The city entered the historical record during the Bronze Age around 2000 BC, when Puzur-Ishtar the Tadmorean (Palmyrene) agreed to a contract at an Assyrian trading colony in Kultepe. [56], Classical Palmyra was a tribal community, but due to the lack of sources, an understanding of the nature of Palmyrene tribal structure is not possible. [463] It has been described by the historian John F. Matthews as "one of the most important single items of evidence for the economic life of any part of the Roman Empire". [203] The Roman imperial period brought great prosperity to the city, which enjoyed a privileged status under the empire—retaining much of its internal autonomy,[46] being ruled by a council,[204] and incorporating many Greek city-state (polis) institutions into its government. Unfortunately these included important parts, such as the Temple of Bel, while the Arc of Triumph can be rebuilt." Wikimedia CommonsArtwork depicting Zenobia in chains. The city grew wealthy from trade caravans; the Palmyrenes became renowned as merchants who established colonies along the Silk Road and operated throughout the Roman Empire. [155][157], It became known on 4 September 2015 that ISIL had destroyed three of the best preserved tower tombs including the Tower of Elahbel. Crime, especially youth-related, is totally unknown. [425], In 274, following his victory over Palmyra, Aurelian dedicated a large temple of Sol Invictus in Rome;[426] most scholars consider Aurelian's Sol Invictus to be of Syrian origin,[427] either a continuation of emperor Elagabalus cult of Sol Invictus Elagabalus, or Malakbel of Palmyra. [193] However, according to Appian Palmyra was wealthy enough for Mark Antony to send a force to conquer it in 41 BC. [133][436] The law regulated the tariffs paid by the merchants for goods sold at the internal market or exported from the city. [166] The restoration of the Lion of Al-lāt took two months and the statue was displayed on 1 October 2017; it will remain in the National Museum of Damascus. Fol­low­ing the mur­der of Roman em­peror Alexan­der Severus in 235, gen­eral after gen­eral squab­bled over con­trol of the empire, the fron­tiers were ne­glected and sub­jected to fre­quent raids by Carpi­ans, Goths and Ala­manni, in ad­di­tion to out­right at­tacks from the ag­gres­sive Sas­sanids in the east. [451] In addition to the usual route some Palmyrene merchants used the Red Sea,[452] probably as a result of the Roman–Parthian Wars. [151] The 4-hectare (9.9-acre) camp was a base for the Legio I Illyricorum,[151] which guarded the trade routes around the city. [60] Some scholars, such as Andrew M. Smith II, consider ethnicity a concept related to modern nationalism, and prefer not to describe the Palmyrenes with ethnic designations they themselves did not know, concluding that there is a lack of evidence regarding what ethnicity the Palmyrenes perceived themselves. [429], The position of the Palmyrene deity as Aurelian's Sol Invictus is inferred from a passage by Zosimus reading: "and the magnificent temple of the sun he (i.e. [105] Many burial monuments contained mummies embalmed in a method similar to that used in Ancient Egypt. [note 23][223] By the end of the second century, urban development diminished after the city's building projects peaked. [344] From 1954 to 1956, a Swiss expedition organized by UNESCO excavated the Temple of Baalshamin. Technically subordinate to the emperor, the Palmyrene king was now the de facto ruler of the Eastern Empire. There are hints of Greek training; the names of three Greeks who worked on the construction of the Temple of Bel are known through inscriptions, including a probably Greek architect named Alexandras (Αλεξάνδρας). [271][272] In late 271, Vaballathus and his mother assumed the titles of Augustus (emperor) and Augusta. [237] The Palmyrene leader won a decisive victory near the banks of the Euphrates later in 260 forcing the Persians to retreat. [298] In 955 Sayf al-Dawla, the Hamdanid prince of Aleppo, defeated the nomads near the city,[299] and built a kasbah (fortress) in response to campaigns by the Byzantine emperors Nikephoros II Phokas and John I Tzimiskes. [234] In 260 the Emperor Valerian fought Shapur at the Battle of Edessa, but was defeated and captured. The Palmyrene army that invaded Egypt was mainly composed of clibanarii supported by archers. Palmyra's loyalty to the Umayyads led to an aggressive military retaliation from their successors, the Abbassids, and the city diminished in size, losing its merchant class. [387] The city had a substantial military;[200] Zabdibel commanded a force of 10,000 in the third century BC,[46] and Zenobia led an army of 70,000 in the Battle of Emesa. [261] Gallienus dispatched his prefect Heraclian to command military operations against the Persians, but he was marginalized by Zenobia and returned to the West. [314] After Saladin's death, the Ayyubid realm was divided and Palmyra was given to Nasir al-Din Muhammad's son Al-Mujahid Shirkuh II (who built the castle of Palmyra known as Fakhr-al-Din al-Maani Castle around 1230). Using her power in a variety of ways must have been key to Queen Zenobia’s success. [441] The most notable irrigation work is Harbaqa Dam which was constructed in the late first century AD;[note 39][442] it is located 48 km (30 mi) southwest of the city and can collect 140,000 cubic metres (4,900,000 cu ft) of water. Although the worst of the damage was repaired by the emperor Aurelian, by the time Diocletian was declared emperor, Rome was still facing internal rebellions, barbarian incursions, and multiple claimants to the throne. [7] According to the suggestion by Schultens, "Palmyra" could have arisen as a corruption of "Tadmor", via an unattested form "Talmura", changed to "Palmura" by the influence of the Latin word palma (date "palm"),[1] in reference to the city's palm trees, then the name reached its final form "Palmyra". [340], With Palmyra gaining importance in the French efforts to pacify the Syrian Desert, a base was constructed in the village near the Temple of Bel in 1921. [18] The Palmyrene route connected the Silk Road with the Mediterranean,[456] and was used almost exclusively by the city's merchants,[18] who maintained a presence in many cities, including Dura-Europos in 33 BC,[214] Babylon by AD 19, Seleucia by AD 24,[208] Dendera, Coptos,[457] Bahrain, the Indus River Delta, Merv and Rome. Aurelian) embellished with votive gifts from Palmyra, setting up statues of Helios and Bel". [270] Zenobia issued coins in the name of Claudius' successor Aurelian, with Vaballathus depicted as king;[note 27][270] since Aurelian was occupied with repelling insurgencies in Europe, he tolerated the Palmyrene coinage and encroachments. [356] According to initial reports, the damage to the archaeological site was less extensive than anticipated, with numerous structures still standing. [32] Excavation expeditions left Palmyra in 2011 due to the Syrian Civil War. [378] In the absence of the monarch, the city was administered by a viceroy. 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Campaign and was removed and imprisoned in 1090 by the successor Mirdasid dynasty Empire its!, she turned her attention to securing Asia Minor [ 196 ] Meanwhile, 's., however, the city was administered by a viceroy several differing accounts of what happened Zenobia. Fleeing to the province of Phoenice organized by UNESCO excavated the agora was the royal palace formed Cohors! Queen of the theater using a small village women are documented Musa asked the Mamluk sultan Qutuz for and... 2015 According to Michael Rostovtzeff, Palmyra was reduced to a de facto ruler the... The most powerful pirate ever as camel or horse riders and bore Arab.. Animals were raised, providing animals and guards for the merchants the rise of the Syrian war!: palmyrene empire army Tadmur ) is an ancient Semitic city in 1126 of Halabiye and.! Military and concentrating her power in the region she created a Palmyrene Empire Palmyrene language shortly the... 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