However, these shots are very tricky to make as they require substantial changes to a player's normal swing mechanics. He proposed a new club with low to mid bounce and a loft angle of 60° to accomplish such a shot. The Soviets also varied the number of accompanying helicopters (two or three) in an effort to upset Afghan force estimations and preparation. 192, 50735 Köln Telefon 0221 - 224 2541 leserreisen@dumont.de Für individuelle, konkrete Fragen zu den einzelnen Reisen wenden Sie sich bitte direkt an unsere Partner. As the older naming system gave way to numbered sets in the mid- to late 1930s, the standardization of loft angles led to a split in the niblick's normal range of lofts, to create the 9-iron (with a loft at the time of about 48–50°) and a new club lofted around 52–54°. These greens are typically elevated above the fairway, are less level and more undulating than traditional greens, and are surrounded on some or all sides by hazards. As irons became more standardized in the 20s through the 40s, the wide sole of the sand wedge was copied on other mid- and high-lofted irons to add mass, which compensates for the progressively shorter shaft lengths to provide a similar feel across all the irons with a given swing. The Soviet-developed RPG-7 is the most widely distributed, recognizable and used RPG in the world. The class of wedges grew out of the need for a better club for playing soft lies and short shots. The very first tanks, the British Mark I, could be penetrated by these weapons under the right conditions. Gene Sarazen won the 1932 British and US Open tournaments with a new club he had invented that was specialized for sand play. The resulting narrow jet of metal can defeat armor equivalent to several hundred millimeters of RHA, such as that used in light and medium armored vehicles. Recently, a ruling by the USGA and R&A to ban the sale of wedges with backspin-increasing 'square' grooves (but grandfathered certain existing designs) accelerated revenues from wedge sales as golfers rushed to acquire designs incorporating these grooves before the ban took effect. Some types of RPG are single-use disposable units, such as the RPG-22 and M72 LAW; with these units, once the rocket is fired, the entire launcher is disposed of. The modern pitching wedge is typically used from the fairway or rough for "approach" or "lay-up" shots requiring a distance of between 100 and 125 yards (exact distance will vary, as with any golf club's distance, on a number of variables such as exact club design, player skill and swing speed, and course conditions). Another recent development is a tandem HEAT warhead[14] capable of penetrating reactive armor. It might seem impossible to you that all custom-written essays, research papers, speeches, book reviews, and other custom task completed by our writers are both of high quality and cheap. As its name suggests, a sand wedge is used most often to extract the ball from a bunker. Various armies and manufacturers have developed add-on tank armor and other systems for urban combat, such as the Tank Urban Survival Kit (TUSK) for M1 Abrams, slat armor for the Stryker, ERA kit for the FV432, AZUR for Leclerc, and others. Ensure the development and maintenance of the risk data dictionary … During WW II, as tank armor got thicker, larger calibre anti-tank guns were developed to defeat this thicker armor. In Afghanistan, the Mujahideen often modified RPGs for use against Soviet helicopters by adding a curved pipe to the rear of the launcher tube, which diverted the backblast, allowing the RPG to be fired upward at aircraft from a prone position. [7] Although a number of large caliber guns were developed during the war that were capable of knocking out the most heavily armored tanks, they proved slow to set up and difficult to conceal. [33] An earlier anti-aircraft kill by the Taliban occurred during Operation Red Wings, on 28 June 2005 when a Chinook helicopter was destroyed by unguided rocket propelled grenades. showing only Slang/Internet Slang definitions (show all 36 definitions). Initial attempts to put such weapons in the hands of the infantry resulted in weapons like the Soviet RPG-40 "blast effect" hand grenade (where "RPG" stood for ruchnaya protivotankovaya granata, meaning hand-held anti-tank grenade). IA, 2003. [7] In order to penetrate armor they fired specialized ammunition from proportionally longer barrels to achieve a higher muzzle velocity than field guns. Dyk ned i artikelarkivet og find informationer om finansverdenen, aktiemarkedet og erhvervslivet siden 1996 The lob wedge can be used for any shot requiring a short carry distance (typically 10–50 yards), and/or a very high launch angle, which also results in high backspin and thus little rolling distance after impact. This led to some isolated experiments with higher caliber rifles, similar to elephant guns, using armor-piercing ammunition. aah aal aas aba abb abo abs aby ace ach act add ado ads adz aff aft aga age ago ags aha ahi ahs aia aid ail aim ain air ais ait aka ake ala alb ale alf all alp als alt ama ami amp amu ana and ane ani ann ant any ape apo app apt arb arc ard are arf ark arm ars art ary ash ask asp ass ate att aua aue auf auk ava ave avo awa awe awl … Catherine Brock and The Budget Fashionista have been featured on Fox2 St. Louis, ABC7 Chicago, CBS2 Los Angeles, WGN Chicago, WCPO Cincinnati and more. This meant that if the infantry was on foot, they might not have access to these wheeled, vehicle-towed anti-tank guns. An RPG is an inexpensive way of delivering an explosive payload or warhead over a distance with moderate accuracy. At the time, Soviet helicopters countered the threat from RPGs at landing zones by first clearing them with anti-personnel saturation fire. Since most of the readily available RPG-7 rounds cannot penetrate M1 Abrams tank armor from almost any angle, it is primarily effective against soft-skinned or lightly armored vehicles, and infantry. The most common types of warheads are high explosive (HE) and high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) rounds. However, unlike the RPG-27, there is a smaller diameter precursor round in a smaller side barrel tube in addition to the main round in the main tube. Soviet RPGs were used extensively during the Vietnam War (by the Vietnam People's Army and Vietcong),[11] as well as during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan by the Mujahideen and against South Africans in Angola and Namibia (formerly South West Africa) by SWAPO guerillas during what the South Africans called the South African Border War. Wir wünschen besinnliche Feiertage und alles Gute für das neue Jahr! [4][5] He built his first prototype in 1931 by taking a niblick and soldering extra lead to its sole to add mass, then adjusting the angle of the sole to about 10 degrees from level with the ground, which he found to be the optimal angle to prevent the clubhead either digging deeply into the sand or skimming (bouncing) along the top. Mark IV tanks, however, had slightly thicker armor. MDacne: https://www.mdacne.com: W17 We build MDacne, a mobile app that helps people solve their skin problems using computer vision. [32] The most noteworthy use of RPGs against aircraft in Afghanistan occurred on 6 August 2011 when Taliban fighters shot down a U.S. CH-47 Chinook helicopter killing all 38 personnel on board including SEAL Team 6 from a range of 220 meters. In cases where the player doesn't make "green in regulation" (meaning the ball is not on the green with two strokes left for putts), shots normally taken as putts must instead be used to approach, and so must be very accurate in direction and distance in order to set the ball up for a one-putt par (the chip shot and putt combination is called an "up and down") or even a birdie or eagle made with the chip shot itself. RPGs with high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warheads are very effective against lightly armored vehicles such as armored personnel carriers (APCs) and armored cars. Sarazen's new club, including the wide, angled sole, was ruled legal by both R&A and USGA authorities, and the club itself and its basic design concepts became widely copied by other golfers and by club manufacturers. Similar solutions are active protection systems (APS), engaging and destroying closing projectiles, such as the Russian Drozd and Arena, as well as the recent Israeli TROPHY Active Protection System. The term "rocket-propelled grenade" is a backronym; it stems from the Russian language РПГ which stands for ручной противотанковый гранатомёт (transliterated as "ruchnoy protivotankovy granatomyot", which has the initials "RPG"), meaning "handheld anti-tank grenade launcher", the name given to early Russian designs.[2][3][4]. Different approaches to this goal would lead to the anti-tank spigot mortar, the recoilless rifle and, from the development of practical rocketry, the rocket propelled grenade. Multiple shooters were also effective against heavy tanks with reactive armor: The first shot would be against the driver's viewing prisms. Dave Pelz, a former NASA physicist and golf short-game coach, envisioned the lob wedge in the 1980s as an answer to modern greens, which are designed to be more difficult to approach to add extra challenge to the game. ", "CBS Sports - Finding the wedge that will help fill the gap in your game", Professional Golfers' Association (Great Britain and Ireland), Professional Golfers' Association of America, American Society of Golf Course Architects, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wedge_(golf)&oldid=978154758, Articles needing additional references from June 2009, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 September 2020, at 06:43. [5] As World War II progressed, the appearance of heavier tanks rendered these weapons obsolete and anti-tank guns likewise began firing larger calibre and more effective armor-piercing shells. A key area of variation between different gap wedges is in the bounce angle; typically the more bounce the club has, the better its performance in soft lies and tall grass, but the worse it will perform on firm or tight lies, and vice versa. It is a recoilless weapon, which is easy to use, and effective against armored vehicles. It can also be used to play a ball from a bunker when the ball has not buried itself into the sand and the player needs more distance on the shot than their sand wedge can provide. This wedge is generally made by specialty companies, and some argue that their purpose is redundant, as a regular lob wedge can be "opened" for extra loft in situations calling for such a high launch angle. This led to situations where infantry could find themselves defenseless against tanks and unable to attack tanks. In 1984,[11] Karsten Manufacturing introduced the first mass-produced "L" wedge, as part of PING's widely successful Eye and Eye-2 iron sets, cementing the wedge's name as the "lob" wedge. The term "pitching wedge" is now used by virtually all manufacturers and players to describe this club; Karsten Manufacturing (maker of the PING brand) simply labels their pitching wedges "W" for "wedge". In this type of warhead, the shape of the explosive material within the warhead focuses the explosive energy on a copper (or similar metal) lining. Prior to the 1930s, the best club for short "approach" shots was the "niblick", roughly equivalent to today's 9-iron or pitching wedge in loft; however the design of this club, with a flat, angled face and virtually no "sole", made it difficult to use in sand and other soft lies as it was prone to dig into soft turf. Some anti-tank missiles, such as the Sagger, can be guided after firing by the operator. Militärisches Studienglosar Englisch Teil II/ Teil III, Deutsch – Englisch, Abkürzung Begriff, See … This encourages the player to hit sand wedge shots "fat" (the club hits the ground before the ball), which on a firm lie is generally bad, but in the case of a ball embedded or buried in soft bunker sand this will get the clubhead all the way under the ball to lift it out. An ultra lob wedge is a specialization of the lob wedge with an extremely high loft, as high as 70°. The RPG-30 was designed to address the threat of active protection systems on tanks by using a false target to trick the APS. 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